Vitamins are of two kinds – the water soluble ones and the fat soluble ones. The fat soluble ones are the Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Each one of them is needed for our body in different ways, as we shall see here.
Vitamin A is also known as retinol or retinene. It is obtained mainly from foods that contain carotene, of which carrots are a major source. Most orange and red colored foods contain vitamin A in them. Vitamin A is known for the way in which it improves human eyesight. It enhances the pigmentation in the photosensitive cells in the retina of the eye, due to which we can see bright, sharp images. In the absence of vitamin A, the person may suffer from a condition known as night-blindness where the eyes lose their ability to adjust vision to dim light. Another condition known as xeroderma (excessive dryness of the skin) can also occur.
Vitamin D is calciferol. It is synthesized in the body in the presence of sunlight, especially the early morning sunlight. However, this synthesis occurs only up to a particular childhood age, after which the vitamin D synthesized in the body stays for a lifetime. The main function of vitamin D is in strengthening the bones and teeth. Children who have been kept away from sunlight may develop a condition known as rickets or brittle bones.
Vitamin E, also known as tocoferol, is present in almost all foods. This vitamin is known for its antioxidant properties. When it is consumed in the right amount, it prevents the free radicals in the body from undergoing oxidation, which causes the wear and tear of the tissues of the body, leading to several issues.
Vitamin K is necessary for the production of prothrombin, an enzyme that is necessary for blood clotting. In the absence of vitamin K, an injured person is prone to losing a lot of blood.